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Who became kamikazee

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                                                           By Kirill Bulatov
                               course: Cultural Diversit in the Modern World
                                                      instructor: Leigh Rich

                         WHO BECAME KAMIKAZE PILOTS,
                     AND HOW DID THEY FEEL TOWARDS THEIR
                              SUICIDE MISSION?

     Abstract

     This extended essay is about the Kamikaze pilots who made suicide
attacks from the
     air during the Pacific War. This paper aims to find who the pilots
really were and how
     they felt about their suicide mission. The hypothesis for the research
was that any pilot
     could become a Kamikaze pilot, and that the pilots probably felt
scared, yet took the
     responsibility to carry out their mission.
     Most of the investigations were made through primary sources. Since
the Kamikaze
     attacks were made from bases in Kyushu, there are several museums
there where
     information may be found. There, the actual letters and diaries that
the pilots had left
     behind are displayed. Also, fifteen interviews with survivors of the
attacks, relatives and
     other people related to the attacks were made. Since the Kamikaze
attacks were made
     only fifty years ago, a great quantity of documents was available.
     The time period in concern is from early 1944 to 1945, and the topic
being the
     Kamikaze pilots, and the region of research was within Japan, mainly
Kyushu.
     The conclusion of this extended essay was that the pilots were
ordinary, average young
     men of the time who volunteered, and that most felt that their dying
in such a mission
     would improve the war situation for the Japanese. However, exactly how
the pilots felt
     could not be fully understood by a student researching the topic fifty
years after the
     actual attack.

          In blossom today, then scattered:
          Life is so like a delicate flower.
          How can one expect the fragrance
          To last for ever?

          --Admiral Onishi Takijiro

     Introduction

     During World War II in the Pacific, there were pilots of the Japanese
Imperial Army
     and Navy who made suicide attacks, driving their planes to
deliberately crash into
     carriers and battle- ships of the Allied forces. These were the pilots
known as the
     Kamikaze pilots. This essay focuses on how they felt about their
suicide mission.
     Because right-wing organizations have used the Kamikaze pilots as a
symbol of a
     militaristic and extremely nationalistic Japan, the current Japanese
respond to the issue
     with ignorance and false stereotypes and with generally negative and
unsympathetic
     remarks. The aim of this essay is to reveal the often unknown truth
concerning the
     pilots, and above all to give a clearer image as to who the pilots
really were.
     The hypothesis behind the question, "Who were the Kamikaze pilots and
how did they
     feel towards their suicide mission?" is that any pilot devoted to the
country, who
     volunteered and was chosen felt scared, yet took the responsibility to
carry out his
     mission.

     Part One

     The death of Emperor Taisho may be the point when Japan had started to
become the
     fascist state that it was during the Pacific War. Although the
military had been active
     ever since the Jiji period (1867-1912) in wars such as the Sino-
Japanese War
     (1894-1895), and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), it became
extremely active
     when Crown Prince Hirohito became Emperor Showa. Coup d'etats became
frequent,
     and several political figures were assassinated. By Emperor Showa's
reign, the military
     had the real authority.[1]
     According to those who have lived through the early Showa period (1926-
1945), the
     presence of Emperor Showa was like that of a god and he was more of a
religious
     figure than a political one.[2] In many of the haiku that the Kamikaze
pilots wrote, the
     Emperor is mentioned in the first line.
     Systematic and organized education made such efficient "brainwashing"
possible. In
     public schools, students were taught to die for the emperor. By late
1944, a slogan of
     Jusshi Reisho meaning "Sacrifice life," was taught.[3]
     Most of the pilots who volunteered for the suicide attacks were those
who were born
     late in the Taisho period (1912-1926) or in the first two or three
years of Showa.
     Therefore, they had gone through the brainwashing education, and were
products of
     the militaristic Japan.
     Censorship brought restrictions on the Japanese people. The letters,
diaries, and
     photographs of individual soldiers were all censored. Nothing
revealing where they
     were, or what they were doing concerning the military, could be
communicated.[4]
     Major restrictions were placed on the press, radio and other media.
The public was not
     to be informed of defeats or damage on the Japanese side. Only
victories and damage
     imposed on the Allies were to be announced.[5]
     Another factor that created the extreme atmosphere in Japan were the
"Kenpeitai," a
     part of the Imperial Army which checked on the civilians to see if
they were saying or
     doing anything against the Emperor or the military.[6]
     Since the time of feudalism, especially during the Tokugawa period, a
warrior must
     follow the Bushido. This Code, and a culture which viewed suicide and
the death of
     young people as beautiful were factors contributing to the mass
suicides.[7]

     Part Two

     Although it was only from 1944 that the General Staff had considered
mounting
     organized suicide attacks,[8] "suicide attacks" had been made since
the Japanese
     attack on Pearl Harbor.[9] Two types of suicide attacks had been made.
The first was
     an organized attack which would, in 90% of the cases, result in the
death of the
     soldiers. However, if the plan had worked on the battlefield as it did
in theory, there
     was some possibility that the soldiers would survive.[10] The other
type of suicide
     attack that had been made was completely voluntary, and the result of
a sudden
     decision. This was usually done by aircraft. The pilots, finding no
efficient way to fight
     the American aircraft, deliberately crashed into them, and caused an
explosion,
     destroying the American aircraft as well as killing themselves.[11]
     Because these voluntary suicide attacks had shown that the young
pilots had the spirit
     of dying rather than being defeated, by February, 1944, the staff
officers had started to
     believe that although they were way below the Americans in the number
of aircraft,
     battleships, skillful pilots and soldiers, and in the amount of
natural resources (oil, for
     example), they were above the Americans in the number of young men who
would fight
     to the death rather than be defeated. By organizing the "Tokkotai,"
they thought it
     would also attack the Americans psychologically, and make them lose
their will to
     continue the war.[12] The person who suggested the Kamikaze attack at
first is
     unknown, but it is often thought to be Admiral Takijiro Onishi.
However, Onishi was in
     the position to command the first Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai rather
than suggest
     it.[13]
     In October, 1944, the plans for the organized suicide attacks became
reality. Having
     received permission from the Minister of the Navy, Admiral Onishi
entered Clark Air
     Base prepared to command the first organized suicide attacks.[14]
Onishi had not
     thought the organized suicide attacks to be an efficient tactic, but
that they would be a
     powerful battle tactic, and he believed that it would be the best and
most beautiful
     place for the pilots to die. Onishi once said, "if they (the young
pilots) are on land, they
     would be bombed down, and if they are in the air, they would be shot
down. That's
     sad...Too sad...To let the young men die beautifully, that's what
Tokko is. To give
     beautiful death, that's called sympathy."[15]
     This statement makes sense, considering the relative skills of the
pilots of the time. By
     1944, air raids were made all over Japan, especially in the cities.
Most of the best
     pilots of the Navy and the Army had been lost in previous battles.
Training time was
     greatly reduced to the minimum, or even less than was necessary in
order to train a
     pilot. By the time the organized suicide attacks had started, the
pilots only had the
     ability to fly, not to fight. Although what happens to the pilot
himself in doing the suicide
     attack is by no means anywhere near beauty, to die in such a way, for
the Emperor,
     and for the country, was (at the time), honorable.
     One thing that was decided upon by the General Staff was that the
Kamikaze attacks
     were to be made only if it was in the will of the pilot himself. It
was too much of a task
     to be "commanded."[16]
     The first organized suicide attack was made on October 21, 1944 by a
squadron
     called the Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai.[17] Tokubetsu Kogekitai was the
name
     generally used in the Japanese Imperial Navy and Army. The public had
known them
     as the Tokkotai, the abbreviated form. Tokkotai referred to all the
organized suicide
     attacks. Shinpu is what is better known as Kamikaze.[18] The captain
of the first
     attack was to be Captain Yukio Seki.[19]
     How was Captain Seki talked into such a task? According to the
subcommander of the
     First Air Fleet, Tamai, who brought the issue up to Captain Seki, the
Captain had in a
     short time replied "I understand. Please let me do it."[20] According
to another source,
     the reply that Captain Seki gave was, "Please let me think about it
one night. I will
     accept the offer tomorrow morning."[21]
     The document which seems to have the most credibility is the book, The
Divine Wind
     by Captain Rikihei Inoguchi and Commander Tadashi Nakajima. According
to this
     account a graduate of the Naval Academy, Naoshi Kanno, was originally
nominated as
     the leader of this mission. However, he was away from Mabalacat on a
mission to
     mainland Japan. Therefore, to take Kanno's place Captain Seki was
chosen, and was
     called to Commander Tamai's room at midnight. After hearing of the
mission, it
     appears, Seki remained silent for a while, then replied, "You must let
me do it."[22]
     The reason this is the most credible document is because it had been
written by
     Captain Rikihei Inoguchi, who was actually there with Tamai and Seki,
and named the
     first unit, Shinpu. It is doubtful that there was a flaw in his memory
since the book was
     published in 1959, only 14 years after the war.
     In any case, Captain Seki agreed to lead the first Kamikaze attack,
and, on October
     25, 1944 during the battle off Samos, made one of the first attacks,
on the American
     aircraft carrier Saint Lo.[23] Twenty-six fighter planes were
prepared, of which half
     were to escort and the other half to make the suicide mission. That
half was divided
     into the Shikishima, Yamato, Asahi and Yamazakura.[24]

     Part Three

     The youngest of the Kamikaze pilots of the Imperial Army was 17 years
old,[25] and
     the oldest, 35.[26] Most of them were in their late teens, or early
twenties. As the
     battle in Okinawa [April to June 1945] worsened, the average age of
the pilots got
     younger. Some had only completed the equivalent of an elementary
school and middle
     school combined. Some had been to college. There was a tendency for
them not to be
     first sons. The eldest sons usually took over the family business.
Most were therefore
     the younger sons who did not need to worry about the family business.
     Most of those who had come from college came in what is called the
Gakuto
     Shutsujin. This was when the college students' exemption from being
drafted into the
     military was lifted, and the graduation of the seniors was shifted
from April 1944 to
     September 1943.[27]
     Many of these students were from prestigious colleges such as Tokyo,
Kyoto, Keio,
     and Waseda Universities. These students from college tended to have
more liberal
     ideas, not having been educated in military schools, and also were
more aware of the
     world outside of Japan.
     Where were the pilots trained? All the pilots involved in the "Okinawa
Tokko" had
     been trained in/as one of the following: The Youth Pilot Training
School, Candidates for
     Second Lieutenant, The Imperial Army Air Corps Academy, Pilot Trainee,
Flight
     Officer Candidates, Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet, Pilot
Training Schools,
     or Special Flight Officer Candidate.[28]

     Part Four

     Since the Kamikaze attacks were to be made only if the pilots had
volunteered, and
     could not be "commanded," there were two methods to collect
volunteers. One was for
     all pilots in general, and another was for the Special Flight Officer
Probationary Cadet
     (College graduates) only. The former was an application form, and the
latter was a
     survey. The survey asked: "Do you desire earnestly/wish/do not wish/to
be involved in
     the Kamikaze attacks?" They had to circle one of the three choices, or
leave the paper
     blank. The important fact is that the pilots were required to sign
their names.[29] When
     the military had the absolute power, and the whole atmosphere of Japan
expected men
     to die for the country, there was great psychological pressure to
circle "earnestly
     desire" or "wish." The Army selected those who had circled "earnestly
desire." The
     reason that the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet had to
answer such a survey
     rather than send the applications at their own will was probably
because the military
     had known that the students who had come from college had a wider
vision, and would
     not easily apply for such a mission. For the regular application, the
Army was confident
     that there would be many young pilots who would apply. They were
correct. Every
     student of the 15th term of the Youth Pilot Training School had
applied. Because there
     were so many volunteers, the military had decided to let the ones with
better grades go
     first.[30]
     There are several factors which made so many young pilots volunteer
for such a
     mission. Extreme patriotism must have been one factor for sure. Added
to that, there
     was the reverence for the Emperor, a god. Some say that it was
generally believed that
     if one died for the emperor, and was praised in Yasukuni Shrine, they
would become
     happy forever.[31]
     The effect of the brainwashing that the military had done to the
students is surprising.
     The pilots felt it was "obvious" that they were to take part in the
Kamikaze attacks.
     Most pilots mention in letters that they were happy, and proud of
being given such an
     honorable mission. It is true also that they believed that if they
took part in the mission,
     it might improve the war situation for Japan.[32]
     What the military education was like was described in a diary kept by
Corporal Yukio
     Araki, from the time he had entered the Youth Pilot Training School,
until the night
     before his original date of departure for Okinawa.
     Since anything written was checked by one of the military staff,
nothing that would
     upset the military or contradict the ideas of the Japanese government
could be written.
     However, more importantly, because of the lack of privacy, personal
emotions could
     not be written. Therefore, in Corporal Araki's diary, very rarely can
anything "personal"
     be found. The first several days in the Training school, he simply
lists the subjects that
     were studied that day, and what was done for physical training. Later
on he mentions
     what was done for training, the events that took place, and other
things he had done.
     However, most of what he wrote was about the "warning" he
received.[33] The
     following are some of the "warnings" he had received:
          There is an attitude problem when listening to the officers.[34]
          Some students seem to smile or laugh during training, and others
are being
          lazy...In general there seems to be a lack of spirit.[35]
          Straighten yourself. It reveals your spirit.[36]
     The education emphasized the mind, spirit and attitude. Neatness and
cleanliness were
     also frequently mentioned. Usually, a hard slap in the face
accompanied these warnings.
     The way the 15-year- old boy responded to the warning was: "I must try
harder."[37]
     One of the listed subjects in the diary was a course called "Spiritual
Moral Lecture,"
     nearly every other day. What exactly was taught in the course is not
mentioned.
     However it seemed that in some of these courses, great military
figures who died for
     Japan were mentioned.[38] It is a certainty that this course was one
factor in making
     the pilots feel "happy and proud" to be involved in the Kamikaze
attacks.
     The military education was quickly absorbed by these young pilots-to-
be. It was in
     October 1943 that the young boy had entered the Training School. By
the next
     February, he had written a short poem saying that a Japanese man
should be praised
     when he dies as he should for the Emperor.[39]
     The amount of time students spent in the Youth Pilot Training School
was reduced from
     three years to less than two years for the 15th term students.
Therefore, the schedule
     was tight and tough.[40] There was almost no holiday at all, and many
of the planned
     holidays were canceled.[41] What Corporal Araki called a "holiday" was
very much
     different from what is normally considered a holiday. An example of
his holiday started
     with some sort of ceremony, followed by listening and learning new
songs (probably of
     war), and watching a movie. Something related to the military was
taught even on days
     called "holidays."[42] Therefore, they were given no time to "think."
There was
     something to do almost every minute that they were awake, and they
were taught what
     the right spirit was. By not giving them time to think, they had no
time to evaluate what
     they were being taught. They just absorbed it, and as a result, by the
time they
     graduated, they were brainwashed.
     Corporal Araki had an older brother and three younger brothers. In his
will to his
     parents, he mentioned that he wished two of his younger brothers to
also enter the
     military; one should enter the Navy and become an officer, the other
to enter the Army
     and also become an officer. He also mentions that he wishes that his
brothers follow his
     path (and be involved in the Kamikaze attacks).[43]
     Mr. S. Araki, Corporal Araki's older brother, mentioned that his
brother had greatly
     changed after entering the military school. He remembers that his
brother's attitude
     towards him was not casual, and it was not like he was talking to a
brother. He felt that
     he had really grown up since he had seen him last, both physically and
     psychologically.[44]
     There are three references in which Corporal Araki's thoughts towards
the mission may
     be found: his will, last letters, and his diary. In his will to his
parents, and to his brother,
     he mentions that he has no nostalgic sentiments. In his will addressed
to his brother, he
     mentions that he would like him to consider the mission as piety. In a
postcard sent on
     the day of his mission, he calls the mission, "an honorable mission,"
and that he is
     looking forward to see them again at Yasukuni Shrine.[45] It was in
the end of March
     1945, that Corporal Araki's unit's mission was ordered to take
place.[46] From just
     before then, Corporal Araki had not written in his diary. After an
entry on March 16,
     there were no entries for two months. He wrote, because he was busy,
there was no
     time to write.[47] Could that be true? Indeed, his squadron was on a
tight schedule for
     March. From the 25th, they returned from P'yongyang to Gifu
prefecture.[48]
     However, Sergeant Kazuo Arai had been able to keep a diary at the
time.[49] It may
     be because of strong personal emotions he just could not keep the
diary. Or, it may be
     that he could care no longer about keeping a diary. In either case the
fact that he had
     not written an entry on the day that the mission was officially
ordered, when he had
     written every other special event down, reveals that he was no longer
in the state of
     mind that he had been.
     The planned date of the mission of the 72nd Shinbu squadron (which was
the squadron
     to which Corporal Araki belonged) was initially, May 21, 1945.
However, because of
     rainy weather, it was postponed to May 27, 1945. In his last diary
entry on May 20,
     1945, he wrote:[50]

          ...at ** o'clock I received the thankful command to depart
tomorrow. I
          am deeply emotional, and just hope to sink one (American
battleship).
          Already, hundreds of visitors had visited us. Cheerfully singing
the last
          season of farewell.[51]

     and is cut off there. His handwriting however was very stable, and was
not as if he was
     losing control. If for some reason he had to leave the diary for a
while, why did he not
     go back to it? Was it that he had become extremely emotional that he
could no longer
     write? In any case, he never returned to his diary.

     Part Five

     In reading the last letters of the Kamikaze pilots, there are
generally two types. One,
     the "Typical" letters and the other, the "Unique" letters. Most of the
typical letters were
     written by graduates of military schools such as the Youth Pilot
Training School. The
     "Unique" ones were written by the Special Flight Officer Probationary
Cadets--the
     graduates from college. The first two of the following five pilots
have written a typical
     letter, and the other three have written unique letters.
     Corporal Masato Hisanaga of the 72nd Shinbu Squadron was twenty years
old. In his
     letter, he thanked his parents for the years that he was alive, and
reported to them how
     he had been doing, and informed them of the kindness of the people
where he had
     been. After asking his parents to say "Hi" to various people, he says
that he will take
     revenge for his older brother (who, as it appears, must have been
killed in the war) by
     sinking the enemy's battleship and killing its soldiers. He too asks
that his younger
     brothers follow their brother (himself). "All of the (Japanese)
population is the
     tokkotai." He too mentioned, "I have no nostalgic sentiments."[52]
     Corporal Shinji Ozeki, 19 years old wrote a will to his mother
saying:[53]

          As a man I will courageously go. Now, I have no special nostalgic
          sentiments. However, I will go regretting that although being
born a man, I
          have not had filial piety.
          To give this young self for the protection of the imperial
nation, I believe is
          piety.
          I hope that you will forgive my sin of being undutiful and that
you will live
          in happiness.[54]

     This is similar to what Corporal Araki and Hisanaga had mentioned. All
reveal their
     thoughts towards their parents. They believed their dying was piety,
which shows that
     they were doing it for their family. All had mentioned having no
nostalgic sentiments
     possibly to make their parents feel easier. Because these are
"Typical" letters, many
     others had written just as they had.
     The unique ones written by the college graduates included more
personal feelings. For
     example, Second Lieutenant Shigeyuki Suzuki wrote:[55]

          People say that our feeling is of resignation, but that does not
know at all
          how we feel, and think of us as a fish about to be cooked.
          Young blood does flow in us.
          There are persons we love, we think of, and many unforgettable
          memories. However, with those, we cannot win the war.
          To let this beautiful Japan keep growing, to be released from the
wicked
          hands of the Americans and British, and to build a 'freed Asia'
was our
          goal from the Gakuto Shutsujin year before last; yet nothing has
changed.
          The great day that we can directly be in contact with the battle
is our day
          of happiness and at the same time, the memorial of our
death...[56]

     Second Lieutenant Ryoji Uehara, a graduate of Keio University was 22
years old. His
     ideas were "radical" for the time, and if known by the Kenpeitai, he
would not have
     been left alone.[57] In a note, he wrote to a journalist just before
his mission that he
     was greatly honored to be chosen as a Kamikaze pilot.[58 ]Yet he also
wrote, thinking
     logically with the skills he had gained in college. He believed in
democracy. He believed
     that the victory of democracy was obvious, and although fascism would
make the
     country appear to be prosperous temporarily, only decline would wait
for it. He
     mentioned the fact that Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany had been
defeated, and that the
     power of "Freedom" will appear in history. He says that if his ideas
were correct, it
     would be a tragedy for the nation but that he would be happy. In the
end of the note he
     wrote:
          Tomorrow, one believer in democracy will leave this world. He may
look
          lonely, but his heart is filled with satisfaction.
     Second Lieutenant Uehara believed that he would not go to Yasukuni
Shrine, but go to
     heaven where he would be able to meet his brother and the girl he
loved, who died
     earlier.[59]
     Second Lieutenant Toshio Anazawa was engaged. Yet being chosen for
such a mission
     that [engagement] was to be canceled. He wrote in his last letter to
her all the
     thankfulness he felt for her and her family. He tells her that he does
not want her to
     reflect on the time they had spent together.[60] He wrote:
          As an engaged man, as a man to go, I would like to say a little
to you, a
          lady before I go.
          I only wish your happiness.
          Do not mind the past. You are not to live in the past.
          Have the courage and forget the past. You are to create a new
future.
          You are to live from moment to moment in the reality. Anazawa no
longer
          exists in the reality.[61]
     Unlike the first two letters, which contained the words, "I have no
nostalgic emotions,"
     he wrote: "It's too late now, but I would like to say some of my
wishes."
     He then listed the books he wanted to read, what he wanted to see,
what he wanted to
     listen to, and that he was eager to see her, and to talk to her.[62]
     The last three writings probably spoke for themselves and require no
further
     explanation. They just made clearer the different ways of thought the
college students
     had from the others who attended military school.
     Not only in writing had the thoughts of the pilots appeared. In
actions, and in speeches
     too were the emotions visible. Corporal Mineyoshi Takahashi, according
to Mr. Yasuo
     Takahashi, his older brother, had changed since entering military
school, and his
     attitude in talking with Mr. Takahashi was not as it used to be.[63]
(The way Mr. Y.
     Takahashi explained the differences before and after Mineyoshi joined
the military was
     similar to the way Mr. S. Araki had explained Yukio's changes.) He
remembers that
     the last time they met, he took Corporal Takahashi into the ship he
was working in.
     Suddenly, Corporal Takahashi had asked his brother: "Which part of the
ship is the
     weakest?" Mr. Takahashi remembers that he was extremely surprised, but
pointed to
     the place which he knew was the weakest.[64]
     This reveals that Corporal Takahashi was thinking of his mission
rather calmly. He had
     asked the question, probably thinking of which part of the ship he
should drive his plane
     into.[65]
     Corporal Takamasa Senda before his departure had been singing many
songs with
     children, and at times, sat quietly alone, burning old letters in an
expression of deep
     thought. The last night, he looked up at the stars and said, "You are
lucky, this will be
     the last time I see the stars...I wonder how my mother is
doing...."[66] His singing with
     the children was probably to forget the coming mission, and his
burning the letters was
     to forget the past. Saying that he wanted to be able to see the stars
again is an
     indication that he wanted to live.
     Whether patriotism was the answer to the way they felt can be doubted
in the case of
     Second Lieutenant Fumihiro Mitsuyama. His real name was Tak Kyong-
Hyong.[67]
     He was Korean, but like other Japanese men, he too was sent to war,
and was chosen
     as a Kamikaze pilot. The last evening before his mission, he went to
the cafeteria
     appointed by the Army, which was run by a lady, Mrs. Tome Torihama,
who was
     called "Okasan" (mother) by the young Kamikaze pilots of Chiran Air
Base. He went
     up to her and said, "I will sing you a song of my country," and sang
Ariran. By the
     second verse he was in tears.[68] Because he was a graduate of
college, he had not
     volunteered willingly but was probably pressured to circle "desire
earnestly" in the
     survey, especially being a Korean.
     According to survivors, all say that they felt quite calm, and normal.
They were not
     scared of death but were happy that the day had finally come.[69] Mr.
Itatsu was a
     pilot who had departed for the mission but because his engine had
stopped on the way,
     his plane fell into the sea, and he survived.[70] He says that he
remembers being happy
     when he was chosen for the mission.[71] He said that the young people
then who had
     gone into military schools did not have the ability to think
logically, and therefore sent
     applications without much thought. He also says that these pilots were
really innocent,
     and thought purely that they would be able to serve, and protect the
country.[72] An
     author and a critic, Tadao Morimoto said in a T.V. program that he
believes that it was
     not true that they were happy to die for the country.[73] Mr. Itatsu
says that he
     disagrees with him because some young and innocent pilots died
believing they could
     become happy dying that way.[74] Since Mr. Itatsu was one of the
Kamikaze pilots
     himself, his comments should be given more credibility than the
comments made by
     Tadao Morimoto who had been an officer in the Navy during the war, but
was not
     involved with the Kamikaze attacks himself.
     Kiichi Matsuura, the author of the book Showa wa Toku (Showa Far Away)
wrote
     that he recalls the first planned date of the mission was like every
other day, and no
     special conversation took place. When he found that his aircraft would
not function
     properly, he suddenly felt the strong urge to live. His aircraft not
functioning implied that
     he would not die. Realizing that, he could only think of living. On
his second "chance"
     his plane was fine halfway. He was with two other pilots, and seeing
one of them sink
     into the sea, realized a problem in all their engines. The two
returned. He recalls that
     until the moment they decided to return, he was not at all scared,
because they were
     flying toward death. However, returning was frightening. He had to
protect his life from
     death.[75]
     Finally, in an interview with a member of the Self Defense Force, Mr.
Matsunaga, a
     word which held the key to a better understanding was mentioned. The
word was
     "decision." To the question, "If something happened, would you not be
afraid?" he
     answered that it was his decision to enter such a world, and that he
would not escape if
     anything did occur.[76] Similarly, although it was with far more
psychological pressure,
     all the Kamikaze pilots had made the decision.

     Conclusion

     The pilots were, as a matter of fact, not radical nor extremely
patriotic, but were the
     average Japanese of the time. It was a dream for the young boys of
late Taisho period
     and early Showa to serve in the military, especially in the Air Force,
as a career. Not all
     pilots who wanted to become Kamikaze pilots could become one. Although
this may
     sound strange, there were so many volunteers to make the suicidal and
fatal attacks,
     that the military, to be fair, had to let the ones with the better
grades go earlier. Because
     of the aura that had covered Japan, the young pilots of 18 and 19 were
eager to go.
     Those of the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadets who had their
own thoughts
     like Second lieutenants Suzuki, Uehara, and Anazawa were able to
separate their
     personal life from what was required of them to do for the war. They
felt the
     responsibility to go.
     How exactly the pilots felt about the attacks could not be known but
it seems that they
     were, in general, happy that they could serve the country, but had
other thoughts
     towards death. Because the brainwashing done on the pilots trained in
military schools
     was so effective, it changed the priority of 'life, then country,' the
other way around.
     Life was made, by the atmosphere and education of the time, to be not
the first priority,
     but something that must be given up for the first priority, the
Emperor and the country.
     If they believed that ever-lasting happiness would follow their
mission, there was
     nothing for them to fear. Those who were not brainwashed (the college
graduates) may
     have felt fear. If they were able to detach themselves totally from
life, they might have
     felt better. Yet is detaching oneself from life really possible?
     In any case, it seems that they were all optimistic. They volunteered,
believing their
     death might save their family, the ones they loved, and Japan.
However, as a student
     investigating fifty years after the events, it was not possible for me
to understand exactly
     how the pilots had felt towards their mission.

     Appendix One

     The Different Pilots' Training Schools in The Imperial Army Where the
Kamikaze Pilots
     Were Trained

     The Youth Pilot Training School
          The students who had graduated from the Youth Pilot Training
schools had the
          best flying skills of the Imperial Army. This schooling system
had begun in 1933,
          and lasted until the end of the Pacific War. The age range that
was accepted into
          this school was between 14 and 17. Originally, the time spent in
the school was
          three years. One year of general education in Tokyo and two years
of
          specialized education in various parts of Japan. However, by the
end of the war,
          the students of the 15th term were trained in only a year and 8
months and were
          made into soldiers just in time for the Okinawa Tokko.
     Candidates for Second Lieutenant
          Non-commissioned officers whose excellence was recognized were
educated in
          the Air Corps Academy. Because of their experience and career,
their skill was
          of a high level.
     Imperial Army Air Corps Academy
          Students who had completed the four-year course of Middle School
or the
          Higher Elementary School took an examination to enter. They
became civil
          servants who had decided to work in the Army. Graduates of the
56th and 57th
          term were involved in the Okinawa Tokko.
     Pilot Trainee
          The pilot trainees had to have a pilot's license, and had to be
an Officer
          Candidate. After one month in a squadron, they received six
months of flight
          training in the Imperial Army Air Corps Academy of Kumagaya, and
after six
          months as probationary Officer, became Second Lieutenants. Among
the
          students of the Ninth term, there were graduates of the Higher
Pilot training
          schools.
     Flight Officer Candidates
          Officer candidates consisted of drafted men with at least Middle
School
          education. After four months of preliminary education, a test was
taken. If they
          passed the test, they received the required education for
officers, and if found fit
          for the position were ranked as Higher Officer Candidates. After
serving as
          probationary officers, they were ranked as Second Lieutenants. If
they were not
          found fit as an officer, they became the Lower Officer Candidates
and became
          non-commissioned officers. Those who had the interest in flying
received training
          with the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet in the
Imperial Air Corps
          Academy. The students of the 7th, 8th, and 9th term were involved
in the
          Okinawa Tokko.
     Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadets
          This was for the college students drafted into the war by the
Gakuto Shutsujin
          who were interested in the Air Corps. The 1st term entered in
October 1943,
          the 2nd in December 1943, and the 3rd in June 1944. They were
made into
          Second Lieutenants in one year, half a year earlier than planned.
One sixth of the
          entire Okinawa Tokko of the Army was made up of these 312 cadets.
     Pilot Training Schools
          This was not an institution belonging to the Army, but belonged
to the Ministry of
          Communications. However, the content was almost the same. There
were
          twelve of these schools and the students were separated into the
regular course
          and flight training course. Students of fourteen to fifteen years
old entered the
          regular course. After three years of regular education, the
students received one
          year of flight training which the students of the flight training
course had
          completed. To enter the flight training school from the
beginning, an educational
          background of more than Middle School graduation was required.
108 of the
          graduates died in the Okinawa Tokko.

     Appendix Two

     The 72nd Shinbu Squadron
     Many of the Kamikaze pilots mentioned in the Essay were pilots of the
72nd Shinbu-tai
     of the Imperial Army. The following are pilots of the squadron:

          Title             Name                    Age at Departure
          Captain:
          First Lieutenant  Mutsuo Sato             24
          Sergeant          Nobuyoshi Nishikawa
          Sergeant          Kazuo Arai              21
          Corporal          Yukio Araki             17
          Corporal          Tsutomu Hayakawa        19
          Corporal          Kairyu Kanamoto
          Corporal          Atsunobu Sasaki
          Corporal          Kaname Takahashi        18
          Corporal          Mineyoshi Takahashi     17
          Corporal          Masato Hisanaga         20
          Corporal          Toshio Chizaki          19
          Corporal          Takamasa Senda          19

     This squadron was formed on January 30, 1945 as the 113 Educational
Flight Corps,
     then was transformed to the 23rd Rensei Flight Corps. On March 30,
1945, the same
     unit was renamed the 72nd Shinbu Squadron. (Shinbu refers to the
squadrons of the
     Imperial Army which made the suicide attacks by aircraft.) They were
stationed in
     Heijo, what is now P'yongyan of North Korea. From March 25, 1944, they
were in
     Kagamihara, Gifu prefecture for about one month. Before the mission in
May, the unit
     returned to Kyushu, and stayed in Metabaru, for a few days, and flew
over to Bansei
     Air Base. Their attack was first planned to be made on May 20, 1945,
however it was
     postponed to May 27, 1945 due to rainy weather.
     Of the twelve pilots, three did not depart for the suicide attack.
Corporal Atsunobu
     Sasaki was killed by an American P-51 on May 2, 1945 in China. On the
same day,
     Sergeant Nobuyoshi Nishikawa was injured, and could not take part in
the mission.
     The aircraft of Kairyu Kanamoto malfunctioned on the day of their
mission, and could
     not take off. The remaining nine made their mission from Bansei Air
Base at 6:00 a.m.,
     May 27, 1945.

     Appendix Three

     The Research Method

     The first time I learned of this topic was in August, 1992.  It was
the time when I went
     with my parents to Japan and visited manmuseums and talked to many
people whose
     age varied from12 to 60 and they have told me many stories about war.
     There, a great number of primary sources and photographs were
displayed, which
     made me even more interested in the topic.
     Since the summer of 1992, the collection of information started, with
no academic
     purpose. In 1993, the book Rikugun Saigo no Tokko Kichi by Shichiro
Naemura
     was published. This book was about the Kamikaze pilots who departed
from Bansei
     Air Base.
     That summer of 1993 was crucial to my interest in the Kamikaze pilots.
First, I visited
     Chiran Tokko Heiwa Kaikan again on August 21, and looked in more
detail at the
     letters, diaries and photographs of the pilots. The photographs were
extremely inspiring
     in a sense, since in none of them were the pilots showing an
expression of fatigue, or
     regret. Most of them were smiling.
     On the same night, I decided to spend the evening at "Tomiya Ryokan"
which is what
     used to be the small restaurant Ms. Tome Torihama ran during the war,
and which the
     Kamikaze pilots used frequently. There were several photographs of the
Kamikaze
     pilots remaining there. Mr. Yoshikiyo Torihama, the grandson of Ms.
Tome Torihama,
     talked to me about many episodes concerning the last evening the
pilots visited the
     restaurant.
     Since May 1993 I thought it would be a wonderful opportunity to
organize my thoughts
     and information on this topic.
    This essay was extremely interesting and, above all, meaningful for me.
The
     members of the older generation who I interviewed encouraged and
supported me
     tremendously.

     Appendix Four

     The following are those who have supported and encouraged my research
for the
     Extended Essay: (in alphabetical order)
          Mr. Seiichi Araki
          Mr. Tadamasa Itatsu
          Ms. Itsuko Kai
          Mrs. Masako Kai
          Mr. Kyoichi Kamei
          Mrs. Fusako Manabe
          Mr. Ryo Matsunaga
          Mr. Shiniro Nagao
          Mr. Tadashi Nakajima
          Mr. Glenn Scoggins
          Mr. Tohshio Senda
          Mr. Yasuo Takahashi
          Mr. Yoshikiyo Torihama
          Mr. Akira Yamami
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