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Миф Митридата Евпатора и его рождение

Фотография andy4675 andy4675 23.10 2018

Аппиан, Митридатовы войны 112:


Митридат, в шестнадцатом колене потомок персидского царя Дария Гистаспа, в восьмом — того самого Митридата, который отпал от македонян и захватил власть над понтийским царством. Он прожил 68 или 69 лет, из них 57 лет он был царем.




Страбон 10.4.10:



У Евер­ге­та было двое сыно­вей; уна­сле­до­вал цар­ство Мит­ридат, про­зван­ный Евпа­то­ром, 11 лет от роду.




Дион Кассий 36.9.4-5:


4 and later, when he was proceeding in rather careless fashion and Mithridates suddenly fell upon him, they joined in the attack on the Romans; and at the same time the slaves, to whom the barbarian king had proclaimed freedom, took a hand in the affair. 5 They would have destroyed the Romans utterly had not Mithridates, who, although over seventy years old, was in the battle, been struck by a stone while taking a valiant? part against the enemy. This caused the barbarians to fear that he might die; and while they halted battle on that  account Fabius and others were able to escape to safety.




Орозий, История против язычников 6.5.7:




Стало быть, Митридат воцарился либо в 11 лет (Страбон), либо в 11 или 12 лет (Аппиан). При этом он прожил либо 68 или 69 лет (Страбон), либо свыше 70 (Дион Кассий), либо 72 года (Орозий)...


Миф Митридата по таблице Раглана:


Here is my scoring rationale for Mithridates VI of Pontus. His very high ranking in the Mythic Hero Scale is overdetermined, since several of the incidents receive multiple points. Mithradates' score is a perfect 23, with many extra credit points.


1. Mother a princess. Mithradates' mother, Queen Laodice, was a Seleucid princess.

2. Father a king. His father was King Mithridates V.

3. Parents related or have complex relationship. His parents, Mithridates V and Queen Laodice, may well have been remotely related, since both had entangled Macedonian and Persian family trees. Since Laodice was suspected of complicity in the murder of her husband, their relationship was complicated.

4. Unusual circumstances before birth. The rare, spectacular comet of

135 BC coincided with Mithradates' conception.

5. Son of or sent by gods. Mithridates' name means "sent by Mithra,"

and his authority to rule was bestowed by Mithra; according to ancient Iranian belief, the king is sacred, descended from the the Sun god. Mithradates' birth was said to fulfill oracles predicting a savior-king rising in the East. Mithradates was compared to the god Dionysus and the demi-god Hercules, both of whom he claimed as his ancestor. Mithridates also claimed descent from Alexander the Great, who by the first century BC had become a divine cult figure.

Mithridates himself was hailed as a god by followers in Asia.

6. Attempts to kill during childhood. While he was a boy, enemies within the palace attempted to murder him by various means, and his mother was suspected of trying to poison him.

7. Abandonment, exile, separation; escapes premature death.

Mithradates survived a lightning strike as a child. His father was murdered when Mithridates was a boy, abandoning him to the treachery of his mother. The teenage Mithridates disappeared into the countryside for seven years, again escaping premature death. Another long sojourn, in which Mithridates was presumed dead, occurred early in his reign. As a young man, he escaped another poisoning plot by his sister-wife.

8. Grows up in a faraway land, among peasants and animals. He survived and grew strong in the wilderness, hunting animals and living off the land for seven years, encountering and aided by numerous remote mountain folk. In his second long expedition incognito, Mithridates visited his future dominions to learn about geography, resources, towns, roads, and his subjects.

9. Little known childhood. There are very few details about Mithradates' childhood; his teen years shrouded in mystery.

10. Upon reaching adulthood, returns to kingdom. After seven years, Mithridates returned to his kingdom and recovered it. After losing his kingdom in adulthood, Mithradates regained it again.

11. Victory over powerful enemies. Mithradates overcame his dangerous enemies at court, imprisoning and poisoning his mother and getting rid of other rivals. He also won numerous victories over the Romans.

12. Marries a princess, daughter of his enemy or predecessor.

Mithridates married his own sister, Princess Laodice. She was not only the daughter of his predecessor (his father) but also the daughter of his enemy (his mother).

13. Acknowledged as king. Mithridates was welcomed and hailed as king of Pontus.

14. Rules peacefully for a time. For the first decade or so of Mithradates' reign, Pontus was quiescent and peaceful.

15. Prescribes new laws. Mithridates established new laws (freeing slaves, relieving debt, expanding citizenship) and promoted a "new world order" in his alternative to  Roman rule in Anatolia and the East.

16. Later loses favor with gods or subjects. During the wars against Rome, many omens indicated the gods' disfavor; heavy losses caused his allies to abandon Mithridates' cause. His subjects turned against his increasingly draconian rule; he was beset by defections, desertions, betrayals. In the end, he lost his power in a revolt.

17. Driven from throne and city. Lucullus and Pompey the Great both drove Mithridates from his throne in Sinope, Pontus, forcing him to abandon his kingdom and flee for his life, first to Armenia, and then over the Caucasus Mountains to his alternate Kingdom of the Bosporus in the Crimea.. His son Pharnaces revolted, forcing Mithradates to flee to the high tower of his fortress.

18. Unusual or mysterious death. The circumstances of Mithridates'

death  were extraordinaryy, mysterious, and violent: he attempted to commit suicide with poison but was thwarted due to his lifelong immunization regimen. He died by the sword at the hands of his most trusted bodyguard. Some sources indicate he was forced to commit suicide or killed by  rebels. Dio Cassius 37.13 notes that Mithradates' death was not "simple" but in effect "double."

19. Dies in an elevated place. Mithridates died  in the high tower of his fortress. on top of the high hill above the town of Panticapaeum.

20. Children do not succeed him. Mithridates himself ensured that his sons could not succeed him, by murdering or getting rid of all but one viable heir. That son, Pharnaces, betrayed him to the Romans, and usurped the crown. But Pharnaces' status was that of a client king of Rome, and later he was utterly crushed  and killed by Julius Caesar in 47 BC.

21. Corpse not buried conventionally, or somehow hidden. Mithridates'

corpse was poorly embalmed and shipped across the Black Sea to Pompey. But the body was so decomposed that Mithradates' face was unrecognizable, raising doubts that he was really dead. Even though Pompey could not be certain it was Mithridates' body, he gave it a grand burial/ 22. More than one revered tomb. Pompey placed the body in Mithridates' family sepulchre in Pontus. But the sources are unclear and scholars still debate: Was Mithradates' body ctually interred in Sinope or in Amasis?

23. Prophecies predicted future greatness. Numerous prophecies and oracles were interpreted to predict Mithridates' birth, his rise to power, and his grand destiny.






пункты 1-2 мало важны для того чтобы признать героя "мифическим", на мой взгляд. Далеко не все мифические герои были детьми царей (и по отцу, и по матери). Гораздо чаще встречается мотив, что отец это бог, а мать - царевна (или наоборот - мать богиня, а отец - царь). Примеры? Геракл (Зевс-Алкмена), Персей (Зевс-Даная), Эней (Анхис-Афродита), Тесей (Посейдон-Эфра) и пр.


пункт 3 - это выдумка в приложении к Митридату. "Могли бы иметь" сложные родственные связи отец и мать - но не доказано что имели. Значит голословие, что имели.


пункт 4. Комета была в 135 году, а Митридат родился где-то МЕЖДУ 135 и 131 годами до н. э. Правда, по одной из версий во время его рождения на небе действительно "наблюдали большую звезду"...


пункт 5. Сыном бога Митридат не был. Посланным богами Митридат вопреки приписыванию ему этого - НЕ БЫЛ. И вообще, имя Митридат означает не столько "посланный Митрой", сколько "подаренный Митрой":


meaning "given by the deity Mithra"




пункты 6-7 - да. правда.


пункт 8 - перебор. В случае с Митридатом речь идёт о реальных исторических фактах из его реальной биографии, а не о ЛЕГЕНДЕ.


пункт 9 - вообще мало о детстве какой древней личности мы знаем много. Например: что мы знаем о детстве Лукулла, Сертория или Спартака? Практически ноль информации... Зато о детстве Геракла и Тесея мы знаем достаточно. И что теперь - Геракл и Тесей это личности исторические, а Лукулл и Спартак - мифические? Бред это.


10. Мотив возвращения или прибытия в своё будущее царство - действительно сказочный (и в том числе мифический).


11. Модель Раглана  требует победы мифического героя над чудовищем, диким зверем, великаном, царём или драконом. Разумеется, как и любой другой ВПОЛНЕ ИСТОРИЧЕСКИЙ великий политик, Митридат побеждал царей - но никаких гигантов и драконов он не побеждал. Победа над матерью и победы над римлянами - вообще не в счёт.


12. Модель Раглана требует женитьбы мифического героя с принцессой - зачастую с дочерью царя, которому наследует герой (хотя например Эдип женился с женой предшествовавшего ему царя, и не принцессой - а царицей). Митридат - муж собственной сестры, а значит дочерью своего предшественника на троне. Не беда, что это был общий обычай правителей эпохи Эллинизма жениться на своих родственницах, и чаще всего - на сёстрах.


13. Становление царём - есть. Но сам по себе момент взаимосвязан с пунктами 11 и 12. К тому же, Митридат был по сути законным наследником в своём царстве.


14. Временно - мирное правление (без происшествий). Митридат первое десятилетие с лишним действительно правил мирно (зато потом - был большой бум нескончаемых войн).


15. Издание новых законов (мало кто из мифических героев это делал, к слову - Минос, Тесей... легендарный Ликург...). Митридат - действительно издаёт новые законы (многие эллинистические правители издавали новые законы и указы), и даже ввёл собственный "новый порядок" в качестве альтернативы римскому правлению на Востоке и в Анатолии.


Ну, и так далее с таблицей Раглана и попыткой привязать её к Митридату через притягивание за уши некоторых фактов... Не увязывается. Да и сама таблица - содержит массу нелепых тезисов, которые в лучшем случае "ни о чём". Не описывает она обязательные признаки биографии "мифического героя" как следовало бы...