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Античная Живопись

Фотография andy4675 andy4675 06.09 2014

Можно было бы, хотя и не совсем верно. Но сделано не было. А ещё была высказана мысль, что если переместить все профильные темы в Античность (= Древнюю Грецию и Древний Рим), то т. н. "Древний Мир" на форуме будет ограничен лишь немногими темами. Обеднеет. Чтобы такого не случилось, видимо, администрация и не стала перемещать всех профильных тем по назначению, когда был создан раздел "Античность"...


Фотография andy4675 andy4675 13.09 2014

Перспектива в помпейской живописи:


Tablinum Of The House Of M. Lucretius Fronto, at Pompeii




















Room M of the Villa of P. Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale, near Pompeii, buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, functioned as a bedroom:




The bedroom looks like a room which has little wall space, but is full of window panels. The outside seems to have been brought right into the room by the use of paint and perspective. The master artist had painted the panels to look as if they were actual scenes that a person would see if looking out a window.






Third Style

From the end of the reign of Augustus, a more delicate and colourful style of fresco. It was enriched by Egyptian art, and was later referred to as the Egyptian style.


Fourth Style
From the end of the reign of Nero till 68 AD, this style of fresco was referred to as the 'ornamental style' and was marked by a taste for architectural vistas.




Фотография andy4675 andy4675 13.09 2014

The Oxford History of the Classical World
-Edited By John Boardman, Jasper Griffin, Oswyn Murray. 1993


Достижения античных живописцев (в т. ч. в области перспективы):

Wall-painting of the
early Classical period we have to judge from descriptions. On the walls of public buildings at Delphi and Athens
Polygnotus painted great friezes with figures set up and down the field, though without perspective, and presented epic
scenes of Troy and the underworld, and Micon the more recent, but heroically conceived, struggle for freedom at Marathon.
The manner must have been sub-Archaic and, though much admired in later centuries, it was not copied. Their successors
experimented at last with perspective and, more importantly, with realistic shading and coloration, and preferred the smaller
panel to the great wall compositions which were the closest Greeks had come to the treatment of eastern or Egyptian walls.
The anecdotes told about the realistic work of a Zeuxis or Apelles - the birds that pecked at the painted grapes, the painted
curtain which could not be pulled - show that this is where the true tradition of western painting begins. It is the style copied
on Roman walls, and the few original examples which we have from the end of our period bear an uncanny likeness to
styles of the Italian renaissance



Зарождение перспективы в изобразительном искусстве:

But in the course of the fifth century at Athens there arose an art of scene-painting which two or three centuries
later, and perhaps elsewhere, was to produce elaborate perspective painting. It spread to the walls of houses, the
house of Alcibiades first, and, like Oxford ragwort, which died out in the gardens, but was found flourishing
centuries later in the walls, this new art of scene-painting survived a long time. Its theatrical origin explains the
continual theatrical allusions in the wall-paintings of Pompeii, where fully developed perspective painting was
several times imitated


О скульптурной композиции Пергамского алтаря (перспектива):

Sometimes a hint of perspective was conveyed by the placing of
certain figures above those in the foreground: that they were not merely conceived as at a higher level is indicated by their slightly
smaller scale. This 'activation' of the background, which surely owed much to the influence of painting, -was echoed, in more
tentative fashion, on a number of minor Hellenistic reliefs but was to be more fully exploited only in Roman times

О перспективе в римской живописи из виллы в Боскореале, близ Помпей:

Finally painting. While the Greek tradition of panel pictures continued in both East and West (Caesar paid huge sums for two
mythological paintings by Timomachus of Byzantium), a significant new development was the appearance of illusionistic murals in
Italy. Inspired partly by Hellenistic stage-painting and partly by actual architecture, both past and present, wall-painters soon after
100 B.C. broke away from the stucco work of the so-called First Style (the Italian version of the Hellenistic fashion of masonry-style
wall-decoration) to evolve a purely pictorial style which dissolved the wall into an illusion of three-dimensional space. Invariably
this space was defined by an environment of simulated architecture. In the finest decorations the Italian villa-owner gave his rooms
an exotic, quasi-palatial splendour, with schemes of marble columns tricked out with gilded ornament, glimpses of colonnaded
courts receding in both linear and aerial perspective, and grand historical or religious figure-compositions set out on a podium or -
within a portico. Later, in the 40s and 30s, the architecture tended to become a framework for a central picture, conceived like a
window opening upon another world, and occupied by sacred landscapes or mythological figure-scenes.
The pictorial emphasis which in the Hellenistic world had been largely confined to the floor now returned to the wall, leaving
pavements decorated simply with abstract patterns in various mosaic or mosaic-related techniques. The importance of these
developments has often been underestimated, because much of our evidence comes from the bourgeois houses of small towns such
as Pompeii; but remains of frescoes from imperial residences in Rome and elsewhere during the Augustan period, combined with
information in the literary sources, especially Pliny, confirm that there was a clear shift in prestige from panels to murals in the late
Republic and early Empire. The imitation architecture of this Second Style therefore marks the beginning of a new chapter in ancient
painting, a chapter which was to see such masterpieces as the garden paintings from Livia's villa at Primaporta and the magical
landscapes of the Villa of Agrippa Postumus at Boscotrecase (below, pp. 778 f)

Рост ощущения внутреннего пространства за счёт применения принципов перспективы в декоре интерьера зданий:

Interior Decoration
Interior decoration was an essential ingredient of the Roman life-style and can hardly be considered apart from domestic architecture. Its strictly arthistorical
aspects are dealt with elsewhere (Chapter 32); here we must examine its function and its meaning to the householder.
At the most mundane level a fine mosaic pavement or a set of painted murals were designed to beautify a room. The finest decorations were generally
reserved for the main dining- and reception-rooms, but other areas of the house which were likely to be seen by visitors-the atrium, the peristyle, the
baths, certain bedrooms-could also receive special treatment. Only in the more prosperous houses, however, was the majority of rooms elaborately
decorated. Even in Pompeii the painted walls which conform to the four well-known styles were outnumbered by those with simple striped and
panelled schemes and by walls with plain plaster, and the mosaic pavements were concentrated in a few particularly opulent dwellings, while the
majority of floors were of mortar with perhaps at the most a sprinkling of inset tesserae or marble fragments. In less prosperous cities or societies, for
instance in certain parts of Roman Britain, the house- or villa-owner concentrated most of his resources upon adorning one room: the central diningroom
of the Lullingstone villa, with its Bellerophon and Europa mosaics, is a case in point (above, p. 634).
At a more ambitious level the proprietor used decorations to transform and enhance his environment. This is particularly true of the Pompeian styles of
wall-painting, in which the imitation veneering of the First Style echoed the real veneers of Hellenistic palaces. The porphyry columns and exotic
architecture of the Second Style (above, pp. 522, 546) also evoked the grandeur of a court, though probably transmitted through the medium of stagepainting,
and the baroque extravagances of the Fourth Style (below, p. 784) may have owed something to the theatre but were probably more a form of
escapism into a world of pure imagination. The perspectival forms of both styles also, of course, seemed to enlarge the physical space within a room;
and in some instances, by offering a glimpse of sky above the painted architecture, or by opening a window through it on to a mythical -world, the
decoration seemed to break right through the bounds of the wall. The ultimate expression of this is provided by those paintings, such as the garden
murals from Primaporta, which turned the room into an open-sided pavilion set in a magic forest.
The aesthetic value of such paintings in rooms which were often cramped and badly lit is easily appreciated. Another role of interior decoration was to
turn parts of the house into picture-galleries (pinacothecae). In Hellenistic times, copies of well-known paintings were carried out in mosaic to
embellish the central fields of pavements, and the same tradition continued in certain cities of the east, such as Syrian Antioch, through the imperial
age. But in the Roman west these copies were incorporated as painted panels within wall-decorations. Well-off Pompeians, such as the brothers Vettii
and the owner of the House of the Tragic Poet, collected reproductions of Greek old masters in much the same way as more recent generations have
collected copies of the Laughing Cavalier or the Mona Lisa. This was one means whereby the nouveaux riches could make a display of their culture.
Truly cultured householders, like the owners of the villa at Boscotrecase just north of Pompeii, preferred original paintings in which the stories of
Alexandrian and Ovidian elegy and the bucolic world of Theocritus' Idylls could be evoked in an altogether more subtle and mysterious manner
(above, p. 357)

Воздушная перспектива в монументальных рельефах Юлиев-Клавдиев:

Few monumental reliefs of Julio-Claudian date from Rome survive; those that do display a rather dry style entirely in the Augustan classicizing
mould. The grand processional reliefs in the Villa Medici, for example, thought by some to be part of an Ara Pietatis ('Altar of Piety') of c. A.D. 22-
45, are conceived and executed very much in the manner of the Ara Pacis; only in one major respect do they break fresh ground, in their detailed
rendering of architectural setting, though the problem of providing this without sacrificing the prominence of the human figures has yet to be
solved. A roughly contemporary relief showing a procession of city magistrates also marks an advance in its hesitant adoption of a slightly aerial
perspective rather than a horizontal one: the heads of the second row are raised slightly above those in the foreground. Neither architectural setting
nor vertical perspective was entirely new to the sculptural arts, but for the state reliefs of the capital they were a fresh departure, much exploited in
the years to come

Виды перспективы на Колонне Траяна:

Nowhere, however, is a sense of life and movement more dramatically conveyed than on the stupendous 700-foot frieze of Trajan's Column in
Rome. Dedicated in A.D. 113, and designed to commemorate the Dacian Wars of 101-2 and 105-6, it undoubtedly represents the very apogee of
continuous narrative sculpture in the ancient world. The problem of receding space was not tackled in any consistent fashion; rather the designer's
first priority was to present an almost uninterrupted flow of action-packed scenes. The constant switching between horizontal and bird's eye
perspective, the frequent placing of figures 'above' and 'below' one another without perspective diminution, the incongruities of scale for some
figures in relation to buildings, tend not to detract from the whole but to lend to it increased variety and vitality; the action relentlessly unfolds from
bottom to top, never flagging despite its enormous length. Here, then, is a veritable textbook of the Roman army at work-gathering stores, preparing
for the march, foraging for supplies, building camps, engaging the Dacian foe-delineated with supreme attention to detail

Виды перспективы Колонны Марка Аврелия, а также т. н. "скульптурный импрессионизм" Колонны Септимия Севера:

The same serene and rather lifeless quality also pervades some of the reliefs dedicated by Marcus Aurelius, probably on an arch of 175-6; these
display in addition an increasing simplification of composition and the beginning of a more frontal emphasis for the Emperor, a pose that was to
become de rigueur by the fourth century. All these state reliefs, however, despite high technical skill, mark the very end of the road for the Classical
tradition: sculptors now found themselves in a cul-de-sac, anxious for an avenue of escape from what was becoming routine and devoid of
challenge. The earliest sign of the search for a new sculptural language comes on the Antonine Column base of 161, in two panels showing scenes
of a funeral procession, each with ten foot soldiers of the Praetorian guard encircled by seventeen horsemen.
The combination of horizontal and bird's eye perspective in a single scene is not in itself new, but on this scale it is novel, on a neutral background
stripped of all setting; and the handling of the individual figures, with their large heads and dumpy bodies, also represents a new departure. The
trend towards a fresh simplicity and abstraction of form is further developed on the Column of Aurelius, commemorating the Marcomannic Wars of
172-5 but not finished until 193. Inevitably compared unfavourably with the Column of Trajan, it lacks the involved action, the variety, the attention
to detail of its forerunner. But its designer and sculptors were not seeking to make a duplicate of Trajan's Column. They intended to convey an
impression of war rather than a detailed commentary on it, by presenting fewer episodes carved boldly and clearly; and instead of careful modelling
we find rather flat surfaces, with grooved lines for drapery, and deep undercutting around the figures, designed to enhance the 'black-and-white'
effect of the whole. A yet further stage in the development of what might be termed impressionistic sculpture can be seen on the Arch of Septimius
Severus in the Roman Forum (A.D. 203)


Колонна Антонина Пия:
Cavalry Parade on the base of the column of Antoninus Pius (c. A.D. 161). This relief marks a sharp break with the classical style of previous state
sculptures, dispensing with conventional visual perspective and with indications of setting. The foot-soldiers are supposed to be standing in the
middle, with the cavalry passing in front of and behind them.